in Various Geometries

Updated: June 3, 2015

*****************WHAT IT IS**************************

PENELOPE was created by Francesc Salvat and colleagues at University of Barcelona, for modelling radiation treatment in humans, thus both complex geometries possible, as well as full following of X-rays and therefore secondary fluorescence. A version easily useful for EPMA was developed with the collaboration of Xavier Llovet, who runs the EPMA lab at the University of Barcelona.

*************Powerpoint Presentation*************

"Monte Carlo simulation of EPMA measurements on complex specimens using PENELOPE", the presentation of F. Salvat and X. Llovet for the 2006 M&M meeting in Chicago, and given at the PENEPMA workshop in Madison August 4, 2006*************HOW TO RUN PENEPMA**************

There are now (2015) three (or four) ways to run PENEPMA:

- pyPENELOPE -- python GUI interface developed by Philippe Pinard (Aachen probe lab). Full program. Very nice. Download it from the web. Here is a nice tutorial that will step you through the process of running it.
- John Donovan has created a nice utility with assistance of Salvat and Llovet, to simply (in many cases) graphically visualize the contribution of secondary fluorescence from adjacent bodies. There is a nice tutorial (by Sheri Singerling) for this at the Probe Software "user forum" web site. Join the forum and get access to the tutorial.
- You can also run PENEPMA 'the old fashioned way'. Donovan offers one version (though you must be very careful not to mix runs together, which is very easy). Alternatively, contact Llovet (address easily found on web) and get the most recent version (in June 2015, the most recent one was 2014, which had some very cool new features, for visualizing x-ray spatial distribution. But there is steep learning curve. You can also contact me and I perhaps can help you.

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EPMA, secondary fluorescence errors and thin film work- Correction of secondary X-ray fluorescence near grain boundaries in electron microprobe analysis: Application to thermobarometry of spinel lherzolites, by Llovet and Galan, American Mineralogist, 88, 2003, 10 pages
- Monte Carlo simulation of secondary fluorescence in small particles and at phase boundaries by Llovet, Valovirta and Heikinheimo, Mikrochim. Acta 132 (2000), 8 pages
- Metallic thin film thickness determinationusing electron probe microanalysis, by Campos, Coleoni, Trincavelli, Kaschny, Hubbler, Soares and Vasconcellos, X-Ray Spectrom. 30 (2001), 7 pages
- Quantitative electron microprobe analysis of homogeneous bulk samples by Labar, EMAS-2002, 10 pages

- Monte Carlo simulation of kilovolt electron transport in solids by Martinez, Mayol and Salvat, JAP 67 (1990), 10 pages
- PENELOPE: An algorithm for Monte Carlo simulation of the penetration and energy loss of electrons and positrons in matter, by Baro, Sempau, Fernandez-Varea and Salvat, NIMPR B 100, 1995, 16 pages
- Monte Carlo simulation of 0.1-100 keV electron and positron transport in solids using optical data and partial wave methods, by Fernandez-Varea, Liljequist, Csillag, Raty and Salvat, NIMPR B 108 (1996), 16 pages
- An algorithm for Monte Carlo simulation of coupled electron-photon transport, by Sempau, Acosta, Baro, Fernandez-Varea and Salvat, NIMPR B 132, 1997, 14 pages
- Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray emission by kilovolt electron bombardment, by Acosta, Llovet, Coleoni, Riveros, and Salvat, JAP, 83 (1998) 12 pages
- Improved electron transport mechanics in the PENELOPE Monte-Carlo model, NIMPR B 173 (2001), 12 pages
- The physics of electron/positron transport in PENELOPE, Salvat, Fernandez-Varea, Acosta and Sempau, Proceedings of 9th EGS4 users mtg in Japan, KEK Proceedings 2001-2, 6 pages
- Monte Carlo simulation of bremsstrahlung emission by electrons, Acosta, Llovet and Salvat, Applied Physics Letters, 80, 2002, 3 pages
- Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray spectra generated by kilo-electron-volt electrons, by Llovet, Sorbier, Campos, Acosta and Salvat, JAP 93 (2003), 8 pages
- Experimental benchmarks of the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE, Sempau, Fernandez-Varea, Acosta and Salvat, NIMB 207 (2003), 17 pages
- Parallelization of the PENELOPE Monte Carlo particle transport simulation package by Cruise, Sheppard and Moskvin, Nuclear Math and Computational SciencesL A Century in Review, A Century Anew (ANS), 2003, 11 pages

- Tutorial for PENELOPE (version 2003) 7 pages
- Manual for Fortran program PENELOPE (2003), by Salvat, Fernandez-Varea and Sempau, 24 pages
- PENELOPE, a code system for Monte Carlo simulation of electron and photon transport, by Salvat, Fernandez-Varea and Sempau, 253 pages

- Cross sections for K-shell ionisation by electron impact, by Mayol and Salvat, J. Phys.B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 23 (1990), 14 pages
- Measurements of K-shell ionization cross sections of Cr, Ni and Cu by impact of 6.5-40 keV electrons, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33 (2000), 12 pages
- Calculated electron impact cross sections for the K-shell ionization of Fe, Co, Mn, Ti, Zn, Nb and Mo atoms using the DM formalism, by Deutsch, Becker, Gstir and Mark, IJMS 213 (2002), 4 pages
- Measurements of absolute cross sections for K-shell ionization of Fe and Mn by electron impact, Llovet, Merlet and Salvat, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35 (2002), 10 pages
- Comparison between intensity jumps in experimental, simulated and theoretical multielemental spectra, Figueroa, Garcia and Brusa, X-Ray Spectrometry, 32, 2003, 5 pages
- Complete characterization of a Si(Li) detector in the photon energy range 0.9-5 keV, by Krumrey, Tegeler and Ulm, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60 (1989), 4 pages