Course Descriptions

100 General Geology.
I, II, SS; 3 cr (P-E). Geologic processes, the structure and history of the earth, and minerals, rocks, fossils, and maps; field trips and discussion section. P: Not open to those who have had Geol 101, 106 or 109. Open to Fr.

101 General Geology.
I, II; 5 cr (P-E). Processes of the formation of the earth, the evolution of its principal surface and subsurface features, and the interrelationship of humans with the geological environment and materials of the earth's crust. Students who have taken Geol 100, 106 or 109 may receive only 2 cr. P: Open to Fr.

102 Elementary Geology Laboratory.
I, II; 1 cr (E). Lab of either Geol 101 or 204 for major students with deficiencies; by special arrangement. P: Prev crse or con reg in geol crse.

105 Survey of Oceanography.
(Crosslisted with Atm Ocn)I, II; 3-4 cr (P-E). Nature and behavior of ocean water, interaction of oceans and atmosphere, structure of the ocean floor, life in the oceans, our relationship to the marine environment. P: High school physics or chem recommended. Open to Fr.

106 Environmental Geology.
(Crosslisted with Envir St) I, II; 3 cr (P-E). Application of geology to problems resulting from the ever more intense use of the earth and its resources. Lecture and discussion. P: Not open to those who have had Geology 100, 101 or 109. Open to Fr.

107 Life of the Past.
I, II; 3 cr (B-E). Minerals, rocks, geologic time; origin of life; paleobiology, evolution and classification of fossil plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Lecture, lab. Field trip optional. P: Not open to those who have had Geol 204. Open to Fr.

109 Geology of the National Parks.
I; 3 cr (P-E). Fundamentals of geology taught using the National Parks as examples. Includes plate tectonics, minerals, rocks, earth surface processes, and regional geology of the U.S. P: Open to Fr. Not open to those who have had Geology 100, 101 or 106.

110 Evolution and Extinction.
I, II; 3 cr (B-E). Contemporary views of the origin and diversification of life; crises in the history of life, with emphasis on controversies regarding mass extinctions, particularly at the close of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. P: Open to Fr.

111 Volcanoes and Civilization.
I; 1 cr (P-E). An introduction to the impact and influence volcanoes have had on the evolution of the Earth, life, human civilizations, and modern society. P: Open to Fr.

112 Mountains and Moving Plates.
I; 1 cr (P-E). An introduction to the Earth's great mountain ranges, the processes that lead to their births and deaths, and the reasons why continental mountain ranges differ dramatically from oceanic mountains and mountains on other planets. P: Open to Fr.

115 Science Behind the News-The World Around Us.
II; 1-2 cr (P-E). This internet course will examine the earth and environmental science behind the news with the goal of producing more informed and knowledgeable citizens. The content will vary from semester to semester as topical modules become available. P: Open to Fr. Not open to stdts who have completed other 100-level Geology crses.

117 EX-files: Life in the Earth's Extreme Environment:
I, II 2 cr (B-E). This course will explore the diversity of microbial life forms in modern and ancient geological environments, with a focus on extreme environments of geological origin or relevance. Inquire-based activities will include exploration of unusual aspects of microbial life in everyday settings, as well as preparation and presentation of individual projects. P: Open to Fr

118 Eye in the Sky: Monitoring the Earth by Satellite
II; 1cr. (P-E). Fundamentals of satellite imagery applied to the earth sciences. Basics of image interpretation. Multitemporal data. Resolution and uncertainty. Existing and emerging technologies. Orbits, wavelengths, and satellites. Socio-economic impact of remotely-sensed data. P: Open to Fr

198 Directed Study.
I, II; 1-3 cr (E). P: Graded on a Cr/N basis; requires cons inst.

199 Directed Study.
I, II; 1-3 cr (E). P: Graded on a lettered basis; requires cons inst.

202 Introduction to Geologic Structures.
I; 4 cr (I). Introduction to recognition and mapping of geologic structures in the field. Landforms, folds, faults, tectonics, geologic maps, and field instrumentation. P: Open to Fr.

203 Earth Materials.
II; 5 cr (I). An overview of minerals and the three major groups of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. P: Open to Fr.

204 Geologic Evolution of the Earth.
II; 4 cr (P-I). Physical evolution of the earth and its relationship to the development of life through geologic time. Lecture, lab, and field trips. P: Open to Fr.

290 Continental Drift and Global Change: A Dance Over the Eons.
Irr; 3 cr (r-P-I). A one semester course designed to provide an understanding of plate motions, volcanism, and earthquakes, and their effects on the Earth's surface. The above material will be used as a basis for studying the connections between geologic processes and changes in the biosphere and atmosphere over various time scales. P: any 100 level crse in phys, biol or natural sci. Open to Fr.

302 Physics and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.
I; 3 cr (D). Description of crust, mantle, and core of the earth as determined from geophysical and geochemical methods. P: Geology 202 & 203.

303 Fluids and Sedimentary Processes.
I; 3 cr (D). Survey of fluid flow and sedimentary processes at and near the surface of the crust. Principal approach is via low-temperature aqueous geochemistry. P: Geology 203 & 204.

304 Geobiology.
II; 3 cr (D). Mechanisms of evolution, major groups of the fossil record, primary events in life history, and connections between biosphere and physical earth. P: Geology 204.

320 Geomorphology. (Crosslisted with Geog)
I; 3 cr (P-I). Principles and analysis of geomorphic processes and resulting land forms. Field trip. P: One of the following: Geol 100, 101, 106, 109, 204, Geog 120, 127.

326 Landforms--Topics and Regions.
(Crosslisted with Geog) I or II or SS; 3 cr (P-I). Emphasis on natural and human processes that control the morphology of the land and its waterways. When taught by Knox, major emphasis on surface water hydrology, erosion, sedimentation, and physical characteristics of streams and rivers. P: Intro phy geog or phy geol crse, or cons inst.

331 Gems - The Science Behind the Sparkle.
I, II; 1-2 cr (P-I). This online course covers many of the important aspects of gemology. Geology 331 explores the formation, collection, properties, and treatment of many popular gemstones. P: Jr. Standing

333 The Age of Dinosaurs.
I, II; 3 cr (B-I). This course, intended for non-majors, will survey the evolution and paleobiology of important groups of vertebrates that lived during the Mesozoic Era. Animals that will be covered include dinosaurs, crocodilians, pterosaurs, lizards, turtles, and synapsids. P: Soph. Standing.

376 Topics in Geology.
I or II or SS; 1-3 cr (I). Special topics or discussions of recent research. To be given as the need and opportunity arise. Different sections of this course may be simultaneously offered in two or more areas of geology. May be repeated for credit. P: Cons inst.

390 Global Geophysics.
Alt yrs.; 3 cr (I). Methods of geophysics applied to earth structure and plate tectonics. Principles of seismology, gravity, magnetism and heat flow. P: Math 221.

410 Minerals as a Public Problem.
(Crosslisted with Envir St) II; 3 cr (N-A). Distribution of mineral resources; present and future problems of mineral supply; conservation of minerals, and mineral resources in relation to national and international policy. P: Open to Fr.

411 Energy Resources.
(Crosslisted with Envir St) I; 3 cr (P-I). Sources, availability of fuels. Energy conversion and efficiency. Consumption patterns and trends. Environmental consequences of energy production and use. Policy considerations and alternatives. P: Crse in college level math & a crse in phy sci or cons inst.

420 Glacial and Pleistocene Geology.
(Crosslisted with Geog) II; 3 cr (P-I). Principles, characteristics and work of glaciers; events of the Pleistocene. Field trip. P: Geol 100, 101, 106 or 109 or Geog 120.

421 Applied Surficial Geology.
(Crosslisted with Geog) I; 3 cr (P-I). Practical aspects of surface deposits including genesis and properties of sediments, considerations for groundwater and aggregate resources, waste disposal, and contamination potential. Surface processes such as landslides, shoreline erosion, and floods are also studied in the context of incorporating geology into land use planning. P: Any of Geology 100, 101, 106 or 109 or Geog/IES 120, 127.

430 Principles of Stratigraphy.
II; 3 cr (P-I). Principles used in interpreting the stratigraphic record; depositional environments, correlation methods, sedimentary tectonics, cyclic sedimentation. P: Geol 203, 204 and one of 100, 101, 106 or 109.

455 Structural Geology.
II; 3 cr (I). Principles of rock deformation, structures in layered rocks, structural analysis, intrusive structures. Lab: three-dimensional problems involving structural concepts; field trip. P: Geol 202, 204, one term of physics. Geol 203 recommended or con reg. Geol 456 may be taken con reg.

456 Geologic Field Methods.
II; 2 cr (I). Theory and techniques of geologic mapping; field trips. Geology 456 cannot be taken in lieu of Geology 459. P: Geol 455 must be taken con reg.

457 Conducted Field Trip.
II; 2 cr (I). A one to two week trip, primarily for the study of the principles and methods of geologic mapping. P: Cons inst; Geol 455 or con reg.

459 Field Geology.
SS; 6 cr (A). Detailed geologic mapping and solution of related problems in the field. A multi institutional course based at Park City, Utah. P: Geol 203, 455, 456 and cons inst.

462 Geologic Hazards.
(Crosslisted with GLE) Irr.; 3 cr (D). Recognition, characterization and mitigation of geologic hazards. Topics include: landslides, flooding, coastal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic hazards. Technical reports, group presentations and a final mitigation design project. P: GLE/Civ Engr 330 or Geology 455 or GLE/MS&E 474.

475 Rock Mechanics Applications to Environmental Problems.
(Crosslisted with MS&E, GLE) II; 3 cr (A). Classification of rock for specific engineering purposes, in situ testing, applications to surface mining and slope stability, applications to underground mining and excavations, applications to waste disposal and underground storage, applications to novel methods of in situ mining, applications to earthquakes. P: MS&E 474 or cons inst.

514 History of Geologic Thought.
(Crosslisted with Hist Sci) Alt yrs; I; 3 cr (H-I). Major concepts from earliest to modern times. P: Sr st, Geol 100 or 101 and 204 or cons inst.

515 Principles of Economic Geology.
Alt yrs.; I; 4 cr (I). (Open to mining engineering students for 3 cr.) Composition, structure, occurrence, origin, and economic investigation of important groups of mineral deposits; problems of mineral deposition. P: Geol 203, 204 or cons inst.

517 Monsters and Science: A History of Vertebrate Paleontology.
(Crosslisted with Hist Sci) 3 cr. This course will explore the history of vertebrate paleontology, concentrating on the 19th through 21st centuries. The shifting and sometimes uncomfortable relations between paleontology and other sciences, the arts and the public will be a major theme of the course. P: Jr st.

524 Advanced Landform Geography.
(Crosslisted with Geog) I or II; 3 cr (P-A). Purposes, methods, and content of analysis of landforms, with emphasis on quantitative descriptive regional variation, and functional relationships. P: Cons inst or Jr st.

527 The Quaternary Period.
(Crosslisted with Geog) I; 3 cr (P-A). Principles of Quaternary studies emphasizing terrestrial records and paleoecology of the past two million years and comparisons with the deep ocean record and models of climatic change. P: 1 intermed-level crse in physical geog or geol; or cons inst.

530 Sedimentary Basins.
Alt yrs.; I; 3 cr (I). Origin, evolution, and resource significance of sedimentary basins; tectonic settings and significance, subsidence and thermal histories, basin-scale depositional systems, paleocurrent and provenance analysis, basin types, paleoclimatic influences, petroleum generation, fluid flow. P: Geol 430.

533 Resources From Space.
(Crosslisted with NEEP, Astron) Irr; 3 cr (D). This is a course on the location, extraction, and use of resources that exist in space. These resources include raw materials for life support, structure, and energy. P: Sr st, 1st-yr grads in engr or physical sci, or cons inst.

540 Invertebrate Paleontology I.
I;Odd yrs.; 3 cr(P-I). Biologic, chemical, and stratigraphic relationships of fossil invertebrates; evolutionary trends of invertebrates as interpreted from fossil evidence. P: Geol 107 or Geol 204.

541 Paleobiology.
Even yrs.; I; 3 cr (D). What the fossil record can tell us about the evolutionary process. Topics include: the study of form; tempo and mode of evolution; levels and mechanisms of evolutionary change; extinction in the fossil record; trends in the history of life. P: Course in paleontology (Geol 540, 544, or 740) or course in ecology (Zool, Bot 460).

544 Evolution of the Vertebrates.
Irr.; 2 cr (P-I). Vertebrate paleontology. Elements of vertebrate morphology, ecology, and the stratigraphic significance of vertebrate evolution. P: Geol 100, 101, 107, 204 or Zoology 101 or 151.

550 Geological Oceanography.
(Crosslisted with Envir St) II; 3 cr (I). Geologic and geophysical evidence for the history of the ocean basins and their accumulated sediments. Sediment inputs, dispersal, and deposition in the oceans. Sea floor spreading and evidence for the plate tectonic history of the oceans. Mineral deposits in the deep oceans. Modern techniques in geological oceanography. P: Cons inst.

555 Airphoto Interpretation for Terrain Evaluation.
(Crosslisted with Civ Engr, GLE) Alt yrs.; I; 2 cr (P-I). Determination of soil, bedrock, and drainage characteristics of land areas by airphoto interpretation; physical characteristics of landforms; use of airphoto interpretation for engineering soil surveys, land use suitability evaluation, and land use planning. P: Civ Engr 301 & one of the following: Geology 100 or 101, or Geog/Envir St 120 or 127.

556 Mountain Belts.
Alt yrs.; II; 3 cr (D). Examination of interaction of tectonic plates and the resulting structures. P: Geology 455.

557 Structural Petrology.
Alt yrs.; I; 3 cr (P-D). Petrographic investigation of rock fabrics and deformation using thin sections. Use of microscopes andU-stage. P: Geology 203 and 455.

590 Applied Geophysics I.
I; 3 cr (I). Applications of physics to measurements of Earth structure I: seismic methods and ray theory, random noise and signal enhancement, and multiple detector arrays. P: One yr calc (equiv Math 221-222) required, Math 223 recom. One yr college physics (Physics 207-208 recom). Experience with personal computer use desirable.

591 Applied Geophysics Laboratory I.
I; 1 cr (I). Field- and lab-based application of seismic refraction and reflection techniques to image the shallow sub-surface. P: Con reg in Geology 590 or cons inst. Experience with personal computer use desirable.

592 Applied Geophysics II.
Alt yrs.; 3 cr (A). Applications of physics to measurements of Earth structure II: resistivity and radar measurements, gravitational and magnetic methods. P: One yr calc (equiv Math 221-222) required, Math 223 recom. One yr coll physics (Physics 207-208 recom). Experience with personal computer use desirable.

593 Applied Geophysics Laboratory II.
Alt yrs.; 1 cr (A). Lab and field experiments with gravimeters, magnetometers, ground-penetrating radars, and electrical resistivity equipment. P: Con reg in Geology 592 or cons inst. Experience with personal computer use desirable.

594 Introduction to Applied Geophysics.
(Crosslisted with GLE) I; 3 cr (D). Survey of applied geophysics, including seismic refraction, seismic reflection, electrical resistivity, gravity, and magnetics methods. The course will cover the basic physics of each method and modeling techniques and field procedures. P: 1 yr of college calc, 1 yr of college physics.

595 Field Methods in Applied and Engineering Geophysics.
(Crosslisted with GLE) I; 1 cr. The application of geophysical field methods for delineating near-surface features and/or structures as applied to engineering, environmental and exploration problems. P: 1 yr coll calc, 1 yr coll physics or EMA 201, 202 & Physics 202, prev or con reg in GLE/Geology 594.

610 Geochronology, Timescales, and Rates of Geologic Processes.
Alt yrs.; I; 3 cr (A). Application of radioisotopic (Ar-Ar, U-Pb, U-Th, U-He) and cosmogenic (He, Ne, Cl, Be, C) dating methods. Status of geologic, astronomic and paleomagnetic timescales, Chronology of flood basalts, impacts, extinctions, glaciations. Constraints on rates of magmatism, mountain uplift, deformation, erosion, sedimentation. P: Geol 203 or equiv, or cons inst.

627 Hydrogeology.
(Crosslisted with GLE) I; 3-4 cr (I). Mathematical treatment of the physical principles governing the flow of groundwater; emphasis on well hydraulics and flow system analysis; problem sets and class projects. P: Intro course in geol, Jr st & Math 221 or equiv.

629 Contaminant Hydrogeology.
II; 3 cr (A). Physical and chemical processes governing the transport of solutes in groundwater; application of hydrogeologic and geochemical theory and practice to the protection of aquifers from contamination; problem sets and group projects. P: Geology 627 and college level chemistry or cons inst.

630 Physical Sedimentology.
Alt yrs.; II; 3-4 cr (A). (Students with prior comparable lab training can elect lecture only for 3 cr.) Textures and structures of clastic sediments; physical processes of deposition (e.g. fluid transport, cohesion, gravity deformation, liquefaction); and survey of clastic depositional systems or environments. P: Geol 101 and 204; also 203 and 430 or cons inst.

641 Fractures in Geologic Materials.
(Crosslisted with GLE) 3 cr. Principles of fracture mechanics applied to geologic materials and role of fractures in fluid flow. Analysis of faults, dikes, joints, veins, solution surfaces and other fractures. Field trip; presentation and discussion of rock fracture literature; final paper. P: GLE 474 or Geology 455.

675 Interfacial Biogeochemistry.
3 cr. Geochemical basis for understanding reactions at interfaces between mineral surfaces, dissolved organic compounds, biomembranes and aqueous solutions. Topics include sorption, heterogeneous nucleation, mineral dissolution kinetics electric double-layer theory, surface-complexation models, surface spectroscopy, interfacial thermodynamics, biomineralization biomimetic materials synthesis, early evolution of life. P: Geology 203 & 575, Chem 561 or cons inst.

665 X-Ray Crystallography.
Irr.; 3 cr (I). Fundamentals, theory, application and interpretation of all powder and single crystal techniques. P: Not open to auditors.

681 Senior Honors Thesis.
I, II; 3 cr (A). P: Cons inst.

682 Senior Honors Thesis.
I, II; 3 cr (A). P: Cons inst.

691 Senior Thesis.
I, II, SS; 3-4 cr (D). The senior thesis involves research conducted in collaboration with a faculty member (non honors students). P: Major in geology and geophysics or geological engineering.

692 Senior Thesis.
I, II, SS; 3-4 cr (D). The senior thesis involves research conducted in collaboration with a faculty member (non honors students). P: Major in geology and geophysics or geological engineering.

698 Directed Study.
I, II; 1-6 cr (A). P: Jr or Sr st. Graded on a Cr/N basis; requires cons inst.

699 Directed Study.
I, II; 1-6 cr (A). P: Jr or Sr st. Graded on a lettered basis; requires cons inst.

716 Metalliferous Deposits.
Irr.; 3cr. Geologic characteristics; occurrence and origin of deposits of the principal metals and their economic features. P: Geol 515 or equiv.

722 Quaternary Pollen Analysis
Irr.; 3cr. Application of pollen analysis to the study of sediments of Pleistocene and Recent ages. P: cons inst.

723 Quaternary Pollen Analysis
Irr.; 3cr. Continuation of 722. P: Geol 722 or cons inst.

724 Groundwater Flow Modeling.
3 cr. An introduction to the principles of modeling groundwater flow systems, with emphasis on regional flow system analysis. The use of finite difference technique is stressed. Students are introduced to packaged models developed by the U. S. Geological Survey and Illinois State Water Survey. P: Geol 627 or equiv, calculus.

727 Advanced Hydrogeology.
1-3cr. Advanced topics in Hydrogeology. P: Geol 627 and cons inst.

729 Field Applications in Hydrogeology.
2cr. Instruction and practice in instrumentation and techniques used in collection and interpretation of data. Lectures, labs, and field work in and around Madison. P: Geol 627.

731 Carbonate Sedimentology.
4cr. Principles and techniques for interpretation of the deposition and diagenesis of carbonate rocks and facies; major areas of modern carbonate sedimentation. Lectures, lab, and field trips. P: Geol 430; Geol 540 & 660 desirable or cons inst.

732 Geochemistry of Sediments.
3cr. Processes involved in the origin of chemical sediments; shales, carbonates, and evaporites. P: Geol 360, 370.

737 Conducted Field Trip.
2cr. A 10-day field trip to South Florida carbonate province or to the Ouachita-Arbuckle area, or to other areas pertinent to sedimentary geology. Lectures precede trip. P: A stratigraphy or sedimentology crse or cons inst.

740 Micropaleontology I.
3cr. Microscopic fossils; conodonts, foraminifera, and ostracodes in particular; their biology, ecology, evolution, and stratigraphic distribution. P: Geol 541.

743 Marine Paleoecology.
3cr. Principles of marine ecology applied to the fossil record. Formation of fossil assemblages. Biologic and sedimentologic approaches to environmental reconstruction. P: Geol 430, 540 or con inst.

750 Problems in Oceanography.
(Crosslisted with Envir St, Atm Ocn, Zoology) 3cr. Introduction to techniques used in the study of the biology, chemistry, geology, and physics of the marine environment. P: cons inst.

755 Advanced Structural Geology.
3cr. Structures in layered, intrusive, and metamorphic rocks; structural analysis. P: Geol 455 or equiv.

758 Conducted Field Trip.
2-3cr. A 10-day trip to the Lake Superior district, the Wyoming Rocky Mountains, or other areas. P: Geol 455 or equivalent.

765 Crystal Chemistry.
Irr.; 3cr. Principles of crystal chemistry, emphasizing the structure and behavior of rock forming minerals. P: Geol 203 or equiv or cons inst.

770 Magmatic Systems.
3cr. Application of experimental and theoretical studies to the physicochemical interpretation of igneous rocks, with emphasis on crystal-melt equilibria. P: Geol 360, 370, or cons inst. Chem 561 recommended.

771 Igneous Petrology.
3cr. Classification, characteristics, and petrogenesis of igneous rocks. Representative rock suites studied in lab. P: Geol 660 or cons inst.

772 Metamorphic Petrology.
3cr. Metamorphic agents and processes; the metamorphic facies concept; illustrative rock suites studied in lab. P: Geology 203 and 302.

774 Radiogenic Isotopes in the Earth.
3cr. Evolution of radiogenic isotopes in the Earth; radiogenic isotopes in geochronological and tracer studies; application to the origin of the Solar System and evolution of the crust and mantle. P: Grad st, college chemistry and Geology 203 and 302 or cons inst.

777 Electron Microprobe Analysis.
2cr. The functioning of the electron probe, its use in microanalysis, range of applications, and limitations; plus lab practice. P: Grad st and cons inst.

791 Geophysical Field and Interpretation Methods.
3cr. Multi-parameter geophysical data collection, evaluation of errors, and unified geological interpretation of complete data set. Measurements include gravity, magnetic, resistivity, and seismic parameters. Final report constitutes final examination. P: Geol 590, 690, 1 yr college physics-Math 222, cons inst.

793 Geophysical Inverse Theory.
3cr. Application of inverse methods to geophysical measurements of the structure of the earth. P: cons inst.

795 Physics of the Earth I.
3cr. Potential theory as applied to gravity, geodesy, and electromagnetism of the earth and its internal constitution. P: Geol 792 (con reg), Math 322, Physics 322.

796 Physics of the Earth II.
3cr. Theory and observations of earthquakes, seismic waves and plate tectonics. P: Geol 590, 690, Physics 322, Math 322.

797 Tectonophysics.
3cr. Elasticity and flexure of the earth's lithosphere, heat conduction, mantle convection, earthquake mechanisms, rock rheology, and fluid migration in the earth'scrust; integration of geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical models. P: Geol 590 or cons inst.

875 Advanced Topics in Geology.
1-3cr. P: cons inst.

911 Oceanography and Limnology Seminar.
(Crosslisted with Atm Ocn, Botany, Civ Engr, Envir St, Zoology) 1cr. Sections in various fields of zoological research. P: Grad st in oceanography & limnology grad prog or cons inst.

915 Seminar--Investigations of Mineral Deposits.
2cr. P: cons inst.

920 Seminar in Glacial and Pleistocene Geology.
1-3cr. Subjects selected; field trips. P: Geol 320 & 420 or cons inst.

929 Seminar--Hydrogeology.
1-2cr. Subject selected. P: Geol 627 & cons inst.

930 Seminar--Stratigraphy.
2cr. Subject selected. P: Geol 430, 736 or cons inst.

931 Seminar--Sedimentology and Marine Geology.
2cr. P: Geol 550 or 630 or equiv.

940 Seminar in Paleontology.
1cr. P: Geol 540-541.

955 Seminar--Structural Geology.
2cr. P: Geol 455 or equiv or cons inst.

970 Seminar--Geochemistry.
2cr. P: cons inst.

971 Seminar--Igneous Petrology.
2cr. P: Geol 770 or 771 or equiv.

972 Seminar in Metamorphic Petrology.
2cr. P: Geology 772 or cons inst.

980 Earth System Science Seminar.
(Crosslisted with Atm Ocn, Botany, Envir St, Forest, Geog, Zoology) 1cr. Topics in earth system science. Emphasis on the coupling between atmospheric, oceanic and land surface systems, involving physical geochemical and biological processes, and including interactions with human systems. P: Grad st.

990 Research.
1-12cr. P: cons inst.

991 Seminar: Geophysics.
1-3cr. P: cons inst.

999 Advanced Independent Reading.
1-3cr. P: cons inst.